The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was conceived in July 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference; one of its principal architects was English economist John Maynard Keynes. In contrast to the vision of American and various other allied representatives – notably American economist Harry Dexter White – Lord Keynes intended the IMF as an expansion of the Bank for International Settlements [which is not accountable to any governments: it provides banking services only to central banks], established in 1930 under the guidance of Bank of England governor Montagu Norman and Hitler's future finance minister Hjalmar Schacht. The BIS itself was conceived by family-run "fondi", lending banks with a long tradition of playing both sides against the middle and taking over European ministries and governments by means of usury to use their armies to collect on further usury. In the late 1700s, the Genoese and the Venetian fondi created modern Switzerland as a bank with an army attached. It remains the fondi's stronghold.
All of the military, financial and social convulsions which have wracked Latin America, Africa, and later Southeast Asia since WWII have, as their model, a return to the genocidal empire building conditions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; and as their objective, a new division of the world into a "new world order", with national boundaries only a masquerade for the actual boundaries of the spheres of influence to be carved up like mafia turf according to which family controls which money laundering/lending operation, debt collection operation, etc..
Banking practices based upon speculation and usury are key to an understanding of modern politics, and underlie all other strategic political factors such as raw materials distribution, industrial development, or cultural and intellectual trends.
Among these top families are the Montefiores, financial servants of the Genoese nobility since the 1200s; the Goldsmids and Mocattas, leading bullion merchants for the British royal family since the 1600s; the Oppenheimers, controllers of a large proportion of the diamond and gold mining in South Africa; the Sassoons, agents of the British Crown in India in the 1700s devoting themselves to opium production; the banking families of Warburg, Schiff, Meyer, Loeb, Radziwill, De Menil, Spadafora, Schroeder, von Thurn und Taxis, von Finck, Wittelsbach, Lambert, Hambro, Luzzatto, Orsini, Weill, and countless others hiding behind the curtain of interlocking banking directorates, holding companies, offshore banking empires, and free port concessions - all camouflaged out of public view.
Nearly all of these rich, powerful families directly collaborated with central European fascism and manned the dummy governments of Hitler and Mussolini. After WWII, they went to work for Soviet or Anglo-American intelligence; sometimes for both. All of them play an active role today in the drug, political dirty tricks destabilization, and assassination operations of the various international mafias.
The "fondo" is the collective financial interest of a "family" of the landed aristocracy, or a "family" of the rentier-financier aristocracy.
The fondo functions as a private bank; or a syndicate of several fondi may combine forces to create a jointly controlled private bank or insurance company.
The characteristic activities of the fondi involve generating income from speculation on gains from the manipulation of commodity prices - through monopolies - over some portion of trade in a commodity, including raw materials and their means of transportation.
Another interior view of the Palace of the Doges, Genoa, Italy
Syndicates of fondi greatly increase their power over society by financing the debt of government. If they are able to establish a relative monopoly of lendable currency, bullion or credit, the syndicate can dictate key policies of governments, including the appointments of government ministries.
Thus they control policies on tariffs, taxation, public works, land concessions, special monopolies, and so on.
The takeover of substantial political and financial control in the U.S. has centered on the recruitment of families such as the Cabots, Russells, Peabodys, Morgans, Harrimans, Moores, Rockefellers, Astors, Belmonts, Wallops and so on.
At the time of the American Civil War, the "father of Italian unification", Joseph Mazzini, founder of Italian Scottish Rite Freemasonry, sent some of his Sicilian "Young Italy" proteges - Joseph Macheca, Charles Matranga, and Giuseppe Esposito - to New Orleans [Mississippi River access] to take over the port facilities after the failure of the British financed and armed Confederacy, as an entry point for postwar black market commodities and anti-Reconstruction espionage networks.
"The traditional, honored society of the Sicilian Mafia had largely degenerated into a collection of thieves, cut-throats, and political radicals by the mid-1870s." [this is mostly the work of British agents – the Mazzini network]
"The Marcello family and descendants still own or control a significant amount of real estate in Southeast Louisiana. Locals often cite legends alluding to the possibility of many bodies being dumped in the swamps owned or formerly owned by the Marcello family, and the subsequent consumption of these deceased individuals by local alligators and their cannibal neighbors."
Palazzo Ducale, Venezia
To continue with this unique historical perspective, readers of AD blog are invited to explore Webster Tarpley's (Lyndon LaRouche-influenced) remarkable insights into this financial/banking dynastic continuum. A caveat, though: AD cautions that, like many of his contemporaries, Plato also held numerous elitist societal views.
Source: Venice's War Against Western Civilization
by Webster Tarpley
Venice's War Against Western Civilization
Appeared in Fidelio, Summer 1995
The British royal family of today typifies the Venetian Party, and continues the outlook and methods of an oligarchical faction which can be traced far back into the ancient world. Oligarchism is a principle of irrational domination associated with hereditary oligarchy/ nobility and with certain aristocratic priesthoods. At the center of oligarchy is the idea that certain families are born to rule as an arbitrary elite, while the vast majority of any given population is condemned to oppression, serfdom, or slavery. During most of the past 2,500 years, oligarchs have been identified by their support for the philosophical writings of Aristotle and their rejection of the epistemology of Plato. Aristotle asserted that slavery is a necessary institution, because some are born to rule and others to be ruled. He also reduced the question of human knowledge to the crudest sense certainty and perception of "facts." Aristotle's formalism is a means of killing human creativity, and therefore represents absolute evil. This evil is expressed by the bestialist view of the oligarchs that human beings are the same as animals.
Oligarchs identify wealth purely in money, and practice usury, monetarism, and looting at the expense of technological advancement and physical production. Oligarchs have always been associated with the arbitrary rejection of true scientific discovery and scientific method in favor of open anti-science or more subtle obscurantist pseudo-science. The oligarchy has believed for millennia that the earth is overpopulated; the oligarchical commentary on the Trojan War was that this conflict was necessary in order to prevent greater numbers of mankind from oppressing "Mother Earth." The oligarchy has constantly stressed race and racial characteristics, often as a means for justifying slavery. In international affairs, oligarchs recommend such methods as geopolitics, understood as the method of divide and conquer which lets one power prevail by playing its adversaries one against the other. Oligarchical policy strives to maintain a balance of power among such adversaries for its own benefit, but this attempt always fails in the long run and leads to new wars.
The essence of oligarchism is summed up in the idea of the empire, in which an elite identifying itself as a master race rules over a degraded mass of slaves or other oppressed victims. If oligarchical methods are allowed to dominate human affairs, they always create a breakdown crisis of civilization, with economic depression, war, famine, plague, and pestilence. Examples of this are the fourteenth century Black Plague crisis and the Thirty Years War (1618-48), both of which were created by Venetian intelligence. The post-industrial society and the derivatives crisis have brought about the potential for a new collapse of civilization in our own time. This crisis can only be reversed by repudiating in practice the axioms of the oligarchical mentality.
A pillar of the oligarchical system is the family fortune, or fondo as it is called in Italian. The continuity of the family fortune which earns money through usury and looting is often more important than the biological continuity across generations of the family that owns the fortune.
In Venice, the largest fondo was the endowment of the Basilica of St. Mark, which was closely associated with the Venetian state treasury, and which absorbed the family fortunes of nobles who died without heirs. This fondo was administered by the procurator of St. Mark's, whose position was one of the most powerful under the Venetian system. Around this central fondo were grouped the individual family fortunes of the great oligarchical families, such as the Mocenigo, the Cornaro [many of its members were Doges], the Dandolo, the Contarini, the Morosini, the Zorzi, and the Tron.
Until the end of the eighteenth century, the dozen or so wealthiest Venetian families had holdings comparable or superior to the very wealthiest families anywhere in Europe.
When the Venetian oligarchy transferred many of its families and assets to northern Europe, the Venetian fondi provided the nucleus of the great Bank of Amsterdam, which dominated Europe during the seventeenth century, and of the Bank of England, which became the leading bank of the eighteenth century.
For further reading on the origin of central banking: